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网上制作≡美国匹兹堡大学毕业证图样‰ 一模一样原件

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这是一件真实而又引人深思的小事。
不久前,一位法国教育心理学专家,给法国的小学生和上海的小学生先后出了下面这道完全一样的测试题:一艘船上有86头牛,34只羊,问:这艘船的船长年纪有多大?
法国小学生的回答情况是,超过90%的同学提出了异议,认为这道测试题根本没办法回答,甚至嘲笑老师的"糊涂"。显而易见,这些学生的回答是对的。上海小学生的回答情况恰恰相反:有80%的同学认真地做出了答案,86-34=52岁。只有10%的同学认为此题非常荒谬,无法解答。做出正确回答的同学竟然只有10%!
这位法国教育心理学专家很惊讶,两国的小学生为什么会出现这么大的差别呢?他通过对上海这80%小学生的调查后发现,他们之所以做出错误的答案,是因为他们坚信不移地认为:"老师平时教育我们,只有对问题做出回答,才可能得分;不做的话,就连一分也得不到。老师出的题总是对的,总是有标准答案的,不可能没办法做,也不可能没有答案。"
法国教育心理学专家在总结这两次实验的时候,引用了下面的几句话:
第一句话是笛卡尔说的:怀疑就是方法。
第二句话是法拉第说的:在学术上不盲从大师,他应当重事不重人,真理应当是他的首要目标。
第三句话是爱因斯坦说的:科学发现的过程是一个由好奇、疑虑开始的飞跃。
然后,他颇有感触地讲道:“应当教育孩子敬重老师,但更要教育孩子敬重真理。怀疑并不是缺点,总是没完没了的怀疑才是缺点。只有敢于怀疑,才能减少盲从。有怀疑的地方才有真理,真理是怀疑的影子。”
This is a real and thought-provoking little thing.
Not long ago, a French educational psychology expert gave the following test questions to French primary school students and Shanghai primary school students: there are 86 cows and 34 sheep on a ship. How old is the captain of the ship?
More than 90 per cent of French pupils questioned the question, saying it was impossible to answer and even ridiculing their teacher for being confused. Obviously, the students were right. The answer of Shanghai primary school students is quite the opposite: 80% of the students answer seriously, 86-34=52 years old. only 10% of the students thought the question was too ridiculous to answer. only 10% of the students answered correctly!
The French educational psychologist wondered why there was such a big difference between the two countries" pupils. After his survey of the 80 percent of Shanghai primary school students, he found that they gave wrong answers because they firmly believed that: "teachers usually teach us that only by answering questions can we score. If you don"t, you won"t even get a point. The teacher out of the question is always right, there is always a standard answer, it is impossible to do, it is impossible to have no answer.
The French educational psychologist summed up the two experiments with the following quote:
The first was Descartes: doubt is method.
Faraday said in the second sentence: in academic not blindly follow the master, he should be more important than people, the truth should be his first goal.
The process of scientific discovery is a leap that begins with curiosity and doubt.
Then, he said with deep feeling: "children should be taught to respect the teacher, but more should be taught to respect the truth. Doubt is not a fault, but a perpetual suspicion. only dare to doubt, can reduce blind obedience. Where there is doubt there is truth, and truth is the shadow of doubt. 

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